Inventory of Ring Structures in N- and W-Morocco based on Satellite Data

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

  •   Barbara Theilen-Willige

Abstract

This study is focused on the detection of circular features with different sizes, origins, and state of erosion as well as on their surrounding tectonic pattern based on satellite images of North- and West- Morocco. Sentinel 2- and Landsat 8/9-images and Sentinel 1 radar data help to identify larger ring structures and smaller circular features. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data and the DEM derived morphometric maps support these investigations in a GeoInformation System (GIS) embedded environment. The evaluations of the various satellite data, especially after digital image processing of the thermal bands, contribute to the inventory larger ring structures with diameters of 10 km up to more than 50 km related to magmatic intrusions or to salt domes in the subsurface with varying grades of erosion. Some of these larger ring structures are only visible on morphometric maps, traced by circular arrangements of slope gradients or a concentric drainage pattern. Smaller circular features such as volcanic features (cinder cones, calderas, maars), and sinkholes in karst environments with diameters ranging from several 10 m up to more than 500 m were digitized as well. As karst phenomena, volcanic features or halotectonic movements may cause damage to the infrastructure the inventory of ring structures should be part of a natural hazard GIS.

Keywords: Circular Structures, GIS, Morocco, Remote Sensing.

References

Michard A, Saddiqi O, Chalouan A, Frizon de Lamott D (Eds.): Continental Evolution: The Geology of Morocco, Structure, Stratigraphy, and Tectonics of the Africa-Atlantic-Mediterranean Triple Junction. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2008; Lecture Notes 133 in Earth Sciences 116, ISSN: 0930-0317.

Tawadros E. Geology of North Africa. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, a Balkema book, Version Date: 2011-12-07, International Standard Book Number-13, 978-0-415-89146-2.

Ennih N, Liégeois JP. The boundaries of the West African craton, with special reference to the basement of the Moroccan metacratonic Anti- Atlas belt. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 2008; 297: 1-17. doi:10.1144/SP297.1.

Theilen-Willige B, Naouadir I. Contribution of Remote Sensing and GIS to the Inventory and Analysis of Factors influencing the Development of Karst Features in the Middle Atlas, Morocco. European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, Nov. 2022;3 (6): 1-17. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24018/ejgeo.2022.3.6.330.

European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC) Available from: https://www.emsc-csem.org/Earthquake/?filter=yes.

International Seismologica] Centre (ISC), Available: http://www.isc.ac.uk/iscbulletin/search/catalogue/interactive/

US Geological Survey (USGS). Available from: https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/search/

OneGeology portal, British Geological Survey. Availabe from: http://portal.onegeology.org/OnegeologyGlobal/, Geology of Morocco at 1:5 million scale. 2019. https://map.bgs.ac.uk/arcgis/services/AGA/BGS_Groundwater/MapS erver/WmsServer?

Geologic Shapefiles. Available from: http://www.mediafire.com/file/7vhwkevolkm94bl/g%C3%A9ologie+ maroc.zip.

Hafid M, Zizi M, Bally AW, Ait Salem A. Structural styles of the western onshore and offshore termination of the High Atlas, Morocco. Comptes Rendus Geoscience, January 2006; 338(1–2): 50-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crte.2005.10.007.

Yaaqoub A, Essaïfi A, Clementucci R, Ballato P, Faccenna C. Late Cenozoic tectonic deformation and mantle-driven uplift in the Middle Atlas mountain belt (Morocco). EGU General Assembly, 2021; EGU21-13646. Available from: https://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&ved=2ahUKEwiTt4LX_M77AhUiYPEDHZQ_CKw4ChAWegQI ChAB&url=https%3A%2F%2Fpresentations.copernicus.org%2FEGU 21%2FEGU2113646_presentation.pdf&usg=AOvVaw0gRSNkIMLK cITWm415EU.

Mounir S, Saoud N, Charroud M, Mounir, K, Choukrad J. The Middle Atlas Geological karsts forms: Towards Geosites characterization. Oil & Gas Science and Technology - Revue de l IFP. 2019;74(3–5). DOI:10.2516/ogst/2018089.

Frizon de Lamotte D, Zizi M, Missenard Y, Hafid M, El Azzouzi M, Maury RC, Charriere A, Taki Z, M. Benammi M, Michard A. The Atlas System. In: Michard A, Saddiqi O, Chalouan A, Frizon de Lamotte D (Eds.): Continental Evolution: The Geology of Morocco, Structure, Stratigraphy, and Tectonics of the Africa-Atlantic-Mediterranean Triple Junction. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2008, Chapter 4, Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences 116: 133-202, ISSN: 0930-0317.

Soulaimani A, Michard A, Ouanaimi H, Baidder L, Raddi Y, Saddiqi O, Rjimati EC. Late Ediacaran–Cambrian structures and their reactivation during the Variscan and Alpine cycles in the Anti-Atlas (Morocco). Journal of African Earth Sciences, Oct. 2014; 98: 94-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2014.04.025.

Marzoli A, Bertrand H, Youbi N, Callegaro S, Merle R, Reisberg L, Chiaradia M, et al. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) in Morocco. Journal of Petrology, 2019; 60(5): 945–996. https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egz021.

Ikenne M, Souhassou M, Arai S, Soulaimani A. A historical overview of Moroccan magmatic events along northwest edge of the West African Craton. Journal of African Earth Sciences. March 2017; 127: 3-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2016.10.002.

Marzoli A, Bertrand H, Youbi N, Callegaro S, Merle R, et al. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) in Morocco. Journal of Petrology. 2019; 60(5): 945–996. doi: 10.1093/petrology/egz021.

Tari G, Haddou Jabour H. Salt Tectonics in the Atlantic Margin of Morocco. Search and Discovery Article #30061. Posted October 30, 2008; Adapted from oral presentation at AAPG Annual Convention, San Antonio, Texas, April 20-23, 2008. http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/documents/2008/08192tari/imag es/tari.pdf.

Tari G, Novotny B, Jabour H, Hafid M. Salt Tectonics Along the Atlantic Margin of NW Africa (Morocco and Mauritania). Permo-Triassic Salt Provinces of Europe, North Africa and the Atlantic Margins, 2017: 331–351. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-809417-4.00016-1.

Thiéblemont D. Geological Map of Africa at 1:10 M scale, CGMW-BRGM, 2016. ISBN: 9782917310328. doi: 10.14682/2016GEOAFR.

Hollard H, Choubert G, Bronner G, Marchand J, Sougy J, et al. Carte Géologique du Maroc, scale 1: 1.000.000 - Serv. Carte géol. Maroc, 1985.

USGS EarthExplorer. Available: https://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/.

European Space Agency (ESA), Copernicus Open Access Hub. Available from: https://scihub.copernicus.eu/dhus/#/home.

Geofabrik's free download server. Available from: http://download.geofabrik.de/africa.html.

Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) Data Search Vertex. NASA Earth Data. Available from: https://search.asf.alaska.edu/#/

TanDEM-X - Digital Elevation Model (DEM) - Global, 90m. Available from: https://download.geoservice.dlr.de/TDM90/.

Theilen-Willige B. Geomorphologic and geologic Analysis of Satellite Data of the Betic and Rif orogenic Belts in the Western Mediterranean Sea. European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences. April 2022; 3(2): 73-79. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24018/ejgeo.2022.3.2.276.

Mountaj S, Remmal T, Lakroud K, Boivin P, El Hassani el Amrani I, El Kamel F, Makhoukhi S, et al. The Volcanic Field of the Middle Atlas Causse: Highlights and Heritage Appropriation. The Geographical Bulletin, 60(2): 127-147.

Melis MT, Pisani L, De Waele J. On the Use of Tri-Stereo Pleiades Images for the Morphometric Measurement of Dolines in the Basaltic Plateau of Azrou (Middle Atlas, Morocco. Remote Sens. 2021; 13, 4087. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13204087.

Mhiyaoui H, Ahmed Manar A, Remmal T, Boujamaoui M, El Kamel F, Amar M, Mansour M, El Hassani El Amrani I. Structures profondes du volcanisme quaternaire du Moyen Atlas central (Maroc): Apports de la cartographie aéromagnétique - Deep quaternary volcanic structures in the central Middle Atlas (Morocco): Contributions of aeromagnetic mapping. Bulletin de l’Institut Scientifique, Rabat, Section Sciences de la Terre. 2016; 38: 111-125. e-ISSN: 2458-7184.

Amine A, El Hassani El Amrani I, Remmal T, El Kamel F, Van wyk de Vries B, Boivin P. Geomorphological Classification and Landforms Inventory of the Middle-Atlas Volcanic Province (Morocco): Scientific Value and Educational Potential. Quaestiones Geographicae. March 2019; 38(1). DOI: 10.2478/quageo-2019-0010.

Habiballah R, Witam O, Ibnoussina M. Relationship between Karstification and Tectonism in the Upper Jurassic Evaporite Formation: A Case Study of the Lalla Fatna Escarpment Safi, Morocco. Iraqi Geological Journal. 2022; 55(2D): 54-63. DOI: 10.46717/igj.55.2D.5ms-2022-10-21.

Theilen-Willige B, Ait Malek H, Charif A, El Bchari F, Chaïbi M. Remote Sensing and GIS Contribution to the Investigation of Karst Landscapes in NW-Morocco. Geosciences, 2014; 4(2): 50-72. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences4020050.

Davison I, Anderson LM, Bilbo, M. Salt Tectonics and Sub-salt Exploration Plays in the Essaouira Basin, Morocco. II Central & North Atlantic Conjugate Margins Conference, Rediscovering the Atlantic, New winds for an old sea. 2010; VI: 76-78. http://metododirecto.pt/CM2010. ISBN: 978-989-96923-1-2.

Van Westen C, Michiel Damen M, Feringa W. National Scale Multi‐Hazard Risk Assessment, Training Package on National Scale Multi‐Hazard Risk Assessment, Theory Book PPRD-EAST. University Twente, Faculty of Geo‐Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), 2013: 175. Available from: https://www.academia.edu/30308280/Training_Package_on_National_Scale_Multi_Hazard_Risk_Assessment_National_Scale_Multi_Hazard_Risk_Assessment_Theory_Book?email_work_card=view-paper.

Earth Impact Database–Africa. The Planetary and Space Science Centre (PASSC), Canada. Available: http://www.passc.net/EarthImpactDatabase/New%20website_052018/Africa.html.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
Theilen-Willige, B. (2023). Inventory of Ring Structures in N- and W-Morocco based on Satellite Data. European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences, 4(1), 34–45. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejgeo.2023.4.1.364